So far we’ve looked at several data types in Python: strings, integers, floats, lists, tuples, booleans. Now let’s have a look at dictionaries.

A dictionary is an unordered collection of key/value pairs. Unordered collection means that in a dictionary, different than in lists or tuples, the items have no order.

The items of a dictionary are accessed by their keys, not by their order. Every value in a dictionary has a key, and vice-versa. The key is usually a string, the value can be anything (including another dictionary).

Dictionary basics

Dictionaries are written with curly brackets. Here’s how we create an empty dict:

myDict = {}

And here’s a new dictionary with some values:

myDict = {
    'key 1' : 'value',
    'key 2' : 'another value',

We can add new items to a dictionary with the following syntax:

myDict['key 3'] = 'some other value'

Individual items can be accessed by their keys:

>>> print myDict['key 2']
another value

If there is no item with the given key, a KeyError is raised:

>>> print myDict['key 4']
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<untitled>", line 2, in <module>
KeyError: 'key 4'

Dictionary methods

Every dictionary has a few methods which we can use to access and manipule their data.

We can get all keys or all values of a dictionary as lists:

>>> print dict.keys()
['key 1', 'key 2', 'key 3']
>>> print myDict.values()
['value', 'another value', 'some other value']

We can also get all items in a dictionary is a list of key/value tuples:

>>> print myDict.items()
[('key 1', 'value'), ('key 2', 'another value'), ('key 3', 'some other value')]

The has_key method allows us to ask if a dictionary has an item with this key:

>>> print myDict.has_key('key 1')
>>> print myDict.has_key('key 4')

Here’s another way to write the same thing, by asking if the list of keys has a certain key:

>>> print 'key 1' in myDict.keys()
>>> print 'key 4' in myDict.keys()

Avoiding KeyErrors

We can use conditionals to avoid getting a KeyError for non-existing keys:

if 'key 4' in myDict.keys():
    print myDict['key 4']
    print 'key not in dict'

Dictionaries also have a get method, which returns None if the key does not exist:

>>> print myDict.get('key 1')
another value
>>> print myDict.get('key 4')

Iterating over a dictionary

Depending on what is more useful to the problem at hand, we can iterate through a dictionary’s keys retrieving their values:

>>> for key in myDict.keys():
>>>     print key, myDict[key]
key 1 value
key 2 another value
key 3 some other value

...or we can iterate through key/value pairs directly:

>>> for key, value in myDict.items():
>>>     print key, value
key 1 value
key 2 another value
key 3 some other value